SDSU Juvenile Crime and Toulmin Model of Argument Research Report
Your argument needs to be timely and address current issues. You should choose a subject that is within your area of expertise and relevant to the general audience. You can choose a topic by exploring and expanding your own inquiry into a subject that has been touched upon in class, but you do not have to.
Whatever topic you choose, make sure that you have something fresh and original to say. Be provocative and argue a particular point of view. Do not try to argue all sides of an issue.
Your essay should be comprehensible to all readers. Use plain English language, an active voice, and a moderate tone. Avoid overly academic or specialty language.
A good argument will:
– be original and opinionated;
– have a clear thesis statement;
– demonstrate ability develop and argument by using different types of appeals;
– have an easy-to-follow structure and rigorous logical support – plausible
reasons and good evidence (Sufficient, Typical, Accurate, Relevant );
– clarify some of the assumptions that warrant its claims;
– try to reject some potential counter-claim;
– use correct grammar, syntax,and punctuation. Papers with too many elementary spelling and grammar mistakes will be returned as incomplete.
Steps in thinking and writing:
- Use the Toulmin model of argument to develop your ideas;
- Craft an introduction that leads your audience into the context of your argument;
- Make a clear but strong statement of your position on your issue;
- Decide how controversial your issue is, and choose a strategy that would be effective for the respective type of audience (friendly, indifferent, or hostile);
- Explain the reasons that support your main argument;
- Develop each claim fully by providing creative evidence;
- Avoid logical fallacies/mistakes;
- Ponder over the assumptions on which your argument relies and decide whether you need to back them up with additional information and/or explanations;
- Anticipate at least one opposing point of view and refute it effectively;
- Provide smooth transitions between sections;
- Craft a brief but satisfying conclusion;
- Avoid vague terms and select specific vocabulary;
- Check for compromising grammatical, punctuation, or mechanical errors.
1.Select the main points you want your audience to take away with them. Condense and simplify your material into as few bullet points as possible. This is where an outline is very handy!
2.Collect presentation tools such as graphs, tables, images, audio and video within your presentation to add interest and communicate more effectively. Keep this number small. For most presentations, three to five key points are all the audience will be able to absorb.
3.Present few key words. Let the audience get the full explanation from what you are saying. Your presentation should be a combination of your words and clips of the PP.
4.Put together your slides. Use a picture on almost every slide. Do not use a lot of text; when you do, words should be in a large, easy to read font. Use contrasting colors, but avoid using too many fonts, sizes, and colors. Your points should be easy to follow.
5.Have a clear introduction that expresses what you will be covering.
6.Do not overload your presentation with too many slides. (Ideally, for a long presentation, you should have no more than one slide for every two to three minutes of your oral/verbal explanation.)
7.Use the notes feature in PowerPoint to remind you of your key points. Also put your key points on index cards in case you are not presenting from a position where you can view your computer screen.
8.Talk to the audience, do not turn your back to them to look at the screen. Do not turn around completely to look at the slides, and never simply read from them – unless you do that for emphasis.
9. Use the conclusion slide to summarize what you have covered.
10.Add a “Questions?” slide after your conclusion to open up discussion with your audience and create an interactive presentation. In general, a successful presentation should lead to a conversation with your targeted audience.
11.End with your contact information, and any information links to your website, blog, or other resources. Make sure that your audience knows that they can continue the conversation with you.
Organization and Development of Content
- Start with a very brief opening to gain immediate attention. (Relevance of the issue, for example.)
- Reveal your position on the issue. (Thesis statement and reasons)
- Present the main ideas clearly and explain only the main points.
- If you choose to refer to some evidence you have provided in your text, do it to explain what purpose it will serve. For exp. “I found surprising statistics indicating that the number of deaths caused by drunk drivers in 2014 exceeds their number in 2015.” Or “I compared American teenagers’ attitude towards binge drinking to that of their German counterparts to show that it differs….”
- Don’t forget to mention your refutation of some counter-argument, to show confidence and expertise.
- Ask for questions after the conclusion of your presentation.
- When you respond to questions, be very brief. Technically, people who are
please provide template of the presentation
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